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Moreover the coke deposit characterized on the spent CoMoP/Al 2 O 3 is equally distributed between the active phase and the carrier whereas the coke seems to be preferentially deposited over the alumina surface on the spent NiMoP/Al 2 O 3 catalysts It suggests that the active sites on the CoMoP/Al 2 O 3 catalysts are easily coked rather than the NiMoP/Al 2 O 3 ones It is also observed that Characterization of coke deposited on catalysts by structures of coke deposited on catalysts because the coke deposition is a serious catalyst deactivation cause in many catalytic processes [1] Get Price And Support Online Identification of the coke deposited on an HZSM-5

Petroleum refining

Petroleum refining - Petroleum refining - Naphtha reforming The most widespread process for rearranging hydrocarbon molecules is naphtha reforming The initial process thermal reforming was developed in the late 1920s Thermal reforming employed temperatures of 510–565 C (950–1 050 F) at moderate pressures—about 40 bars (4 MPa) or 600 psi—to obtain gasolines (petrols) with

Petroleum refining - Petroleum refining - Naphtha reforming The most widespread process for rearranging hydrocarbon molecules is naphtha reforming The initial process thermal reforming was developed in the late 1920s Thermal reforming employed temperatures of 510–565 C (950–1 050 F) at moderate pressures—about 40 bars (4 MPa) or 600 psi—to obtain gasolines (petrols) with

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However adding MgO would increase the amount of coke deposit on the WOx/SiO2 catalyst The TPO profile presented two peaks when the WOx/SiO2 catalyst was physically mixed with MgO The further peak was suggested that came from coke precursor could be produced by isomerization reaction of undesired product Then the occurred coke precursor could deposit and form coke on the acid catalyst

The mechanism of coke formation on silica-alumina cracking catalysts was studied by analysis of cracking experiments with seven pure hydrocarbons at 445' C and n-hexadecane at 500 C under a variety of process conditions Coke deposits were isolated from selected catalyst samples for infrared spectral examination

Production of Hydrogen Plate-Fin Reformer Catalyst can be a surface coating or a porous insert Need to match the heat release rate with the steam hydrocarbon reforming rate Very compact and potentially low cost system Fuel Gas + Air Natural Gas + Steam Metal Metal Metal Metal 22 H 2 Production Emerging Technologies zMicro reactor/Multichannel Heat Exchanger In General – Catalyst can be

Catalyst deactivation and regeneration

Formation of coke on supported metal catalysts Chemically by chemisorption or carbide formation Physically due to blocking of surface sites metal crystalline encapsulation plugging of pores and destruction of catalyst pallets 8 Cα Adsorbed atomic (surface carbide) Cβ Polymeric amorphous films or filaments Cv Vermicular filaments fibers and/or whiskers Cγ Nickel carbide (bulk) Cc

Formation of coke on supported metal catalysts Chemically by chemisorption or carbide formation Physically due to blocking of surface sites metal crystalline encapsulation plugging of pores and destruction of catalyst pallets 8 Cα Adsorbed atomic (surface carbide) Cβ Polymeric amorphous films or filaments Cv Vermicular filaments fibers and/or whiskers Cγ Nickel carbide (bulk) Cc

Process for continuously regenerating catalyst particles Abstract A process for continuously regenerating catalyst particles comprising passing deactivated catalyst particles downwards in sequence through the first coke-burning zone second coke-burning zone oxychlorination zone and calcination zone in the regenerator wherein the catalyst particles are contacted with the regeneration

The location of coke deposited on HZSM-5 zeolite catalyst during the supercritical catalytic cracking (400 C 4 0 MPa) of n-dodecane was systematically characterized by special temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO) and isothermal oxidation methods and a steric hindrance model describing the interactions of the coke deposited on different locations was proposed to support the methods

type•of coke is more abundant and constitutes around 35–65% of the total deposited coke on the catalyst surface This coke determines the shape of temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) spectra The higher the catalyst activity the higher will be the production of such coke [1] The second type is the contaminant or metallic coke This coke is produced from the catalytic

After 20 cycles of reaction operation 20% fall is observed for glycerol conversion and 3 mg carbon g −1 h −1 has deposited on the catalyst In order to minimize the coke deposition accelerating ageing studies are conducted with 1 18 GWMRs in similar conditions and the results are shown in Figure 10(b)

HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS 17 The catalysis in which the catalyst is in a different physical phase from the reactants is termed heterogeneous catalysis most important of such reaction are those in which the reactants are in the gas phase while the catalyst is a solid the process is called Contact Catalysis 18 In heterogeneous catalysis solids catalyze reactions of molecules in gas or solution

High Coke-Resistance NiAl-MnY Catalyst for Dry Reforming of Methane F Zibouche (1) this is mainly associated with carbon deposited on the catalyst's Surface [2] Several studies have been proposed to limit the formation of coke such as the incorporation of the active phase in welldefined structures such as perovskites hydrotalcites etc maybe on stream or (pre)reduction resulting

Coke is assumed deposited in a monolayer The model chosen shows a triangular scheme kinetic equations of the reaction for fresh catalyst with two active sites in the surface reaction and the deactivation rate according to a coke formation mechanism in which a precursor is formed by reaction of 3 adsorbed molecules and 1 molecule in the gas phase It accurately fits both BSTR conversion

Pd

where coke formation and thermodynamic equilibrium represent important process limitations Experiments were carried out at 500–575 C and with catalyst mass to molar flow of fed propane ratios between 15 1 and 35 2 g min mmol−1 employing three different reactor configurations FBR TZFBR and TZFBR + Membrane (TZFBR + ) The results in the FBR showed catalyst deactivation which was

where coke formation and thermodynamic equilibrium represent important process limitations Experiments were carried out at 500–575 C and with catalyst mass to molar flow of fed propane ratios between 15 1 and 35 2 g min mmol−1 employing three different reactor configurations FBR TZFBR and TZFBR + Membrane (TZFBR + ) The results in the FBR showed catalyst deactivation which was

In operando detection of coke deposits on a fixed-bed catalyst by a microwave method Peter Fremerey 1 2 Dieter Rauch 1 2 Andreas Jess 1 Ralf Moos 2 1 Department of Chemical Engineering 2 Department of Functional Materials University of Bayreuth Zentrum fr Energietechnik 95440 Bayreuth Universittsstrae 30 Germany

In the case of 0Ce/50Ni Ni particles were encapsulated by many folds of coke and it was related to the rapid catalyst deactivation However after Ce promoted on the Ni catalyst the thickness of the coke layers and the number of encapsulated Ni particles decreased and the deposited amount of coke on the catalyst also decreased

The catalyst composition and the type of the feedstock treated probably will influence the behavior of the pre-treatment The amounts of the elements deposited on the catalyst surface will determine the adjustment of experimental parameters in order to prepare the sample for coke burning and leaching with strong acids Other spent catalysts

It is found that the major portion of the coke species was hard coke which has activation energy equal to 86 3 kJ mol-1 Slow heating rate and appropriate temperature are monitored to optimize the de-Coking process Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis has been applied to study the structure of coke deposited on supported metal catalyst (soft coke)

Jul 01 2010The constant coke thickness on the catalyst pore walls in the naphtha reforming process (temp ∼ 500 C) implies that coke deposition reaction is the slow controlling step in comparison to the fast mass transfer rate of coke ingredients into the pores The bulk density of the deposited coke on the used catalyst was calculated as 0 966 g/cm 3

However Zeolite Y catalyst exhibited higher coke formation led to the rapid deactivation The stability of zeolite catalysts is addressed by the incorporation of Cerium metal within the framework of two zeolite catalysts namely Zeolite Y and ZSM-5 through the ion-exchange technique Parent and spent catalysts were characterised using synchrotron FT-IR spectroscopy temperature-programmed

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